Please note that this guide has been provided as simple reference. For further clarification, it is suggested that you contact your physician.
Alkaline Phosphatase is an enzyme found primarily in the liver and bones. These levels are usually higher in pregnant women and children due to its role in the bone making process. Elevated levels may be an indication of bone, kidney, or liver disorders.
Albumin is one part of a group of serum proteins and a component of total serum protein. Low values may be a result of hepatic (liver) or renal (kidney) disorders. Higher values may indicate dehydration.
Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT) is an enzyme involved in the metabolism of the amino acid alanine. ALT is found in a number of tissues but in higher concentration in the liver. Elevated levels can be due to certain medications or extensive exercise, but can also be a sign of liver disorders.
Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST) is an enzyme found in high concentration in the heart muscle, liver cells, skeletal muscle cells and to a lesser degree in other tissues. Elevated levels of AST can indicate muscle trauma, heart damage or damage to the liver.
Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN) is an end product of protein metabolism, which is cleared by the kidneys. Elevated levels may be an indication of kidney disorders or diuretics.
Carcinoembryonic Antigen (CEA) is a glycoprotein found in a variety of human tissues which circulates at low levels in the blood, up to 3.ng/ml for non-smokers and 5.0 ng/ml for smokers. Elevations in CEA may be due to inflammation, benign tumors, or malignant tumors.
Cholesterol is a normal body constituent, used in the structure of cell membranes, synthesis of bile acids and steroid hormones. It is one of the major lipids in the body. Excess cholesterol in the blood has been correlated with cardiovascular disease.
Creatinine is a by-product of muscle tissue metabolism. Elevations might suggest kidney or vascular disease. High protein diets may cause mild elevations.
Fructosamine or Glycosylated Serum Protein
Both are time averaged indicators of blood glucose levels over the previous two or three weeks. They are used to assess the glycemic status of diabetics.
Globulin is a component of total serum protein. Abnormal levels have been found in individuals with immune disorders, infections and other diseases.
This test measures blood sugar levels. This test is very sensitive to food intake and requires a period of fasting in order to reflect an accurate representation of blood sugar levels.
Gama Glutamyl Transpeptidase (GGT) is an enzyme found in the liver, bile ducts, and kidneys. Greater than normal levels may indicate hepatitis, heavy alcohol use, or the use of certain medications.
High Density Lipoproteins (HDL) in high levels have shown to provide a protective effect against coronary heart disease. It is sometimes referred to as the good cholesterol.
Low Density Lipoproteins (LDL) in elevated levels can be related to coronary heart disease. It is sometimes referred to as the bad cholesterol.
NTproBNP is a synthesized prohormone used as a cardiovascular marker. Elevations may be caused by Cardiac diseases, certain Pulmonary diseases, Hyperthyroidism, Diabetes, Liver cirrhosis, and/or renal failure.
Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA)
PSA can indicate the condition of the prostate gland in men. Elevations may indicate a risk for prostate cancer; however other benign factors have also been known to elevate PSA values.
This by-product of the breakdown of red blood cells is made into a water-soluble form in the liver. Elevations can indicate chronic liver disease, gall bladder disease, or anemia.
High values may be an indicator of dehydration or chronic inflammation. Extremely low values may be associated with malnutrition or peripheral edema.
Triglycerides comprise the largest portion of fat in the blood. In higher elevations it can be an indication of diabetes, acute alcoholism, liver disease or renal failure. Triglycerides may also be elevated in non-fasting samples.
Glucose, not normally found in the urine, can suggest diabetes or other illnesses, as well as food ingestion.
Elevated values may indicate an infection or metabolic disease. Low values may indicate dehydration or diabetes. It may also indicate specimen adulteration.
Is an enzyme found in white blood cells. When present it can be an indication of kidney or urinary tract infections.
Is a metabolite of nicotine and an indicator of tobacco or nicotine use. It will be present in the urine from all forms of tobacco including cigarettes, cigars, chewing tobacco and other smokeless tobacco products.
Elevated protein levels can be an indicator of kidney disease.
Is used to evaluate kidney function
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