About: Symptoms, Conditions, Causes and Risk Factors for Gynecologic Cancers

We provide care ranging from basic screening to the newest and most innovative treatments. We treat the following conditions:

  • Cervical cancer starts in the cells lining the cervix — the lower part of the uterus (womb) that connects the uterus to the vagina. Precancerous cells on the cervix are the first sign that cervical cancer may develop. These cells do not usually cause pain or other symptoms but can be seen on a Pap test. Treating these cells can prevent cancer from growing.
     
  • Endometrial cancer and other uterine cancers usually start in the endometrium (the inner lining of the uterus). Uterine sarcoma is an uncommon form of uterine cancer that forms in the muscle and tissue that support the uterus.
     
  • Ovarian cancer starts in the cells of the ovaries — the female reproductive organs on each side of the uterus. There are three types, named for the tissue in which they occur:
    • epithelial cells, which cover the surface of the ovary. Most are benign (noncancerous).
    • germ cells, which form the eggs in the ovary.
    • stromal cells, which form the structural tissue of the ovary and produce female hormones.
       
  • Fallopian tube cancer begins at the end of the fallopian tube near the ovary and spreads to the ovary.
     
  • Primary peritoneal carcinoma is closely related to epithelial ovarian cancer. However, it occurs outside the ovary in the peritoneum (the lining of the abdomen). Because it occurs outside the ovary, women who have had their ovaries removed can still develop this type of cancer. Treatment is similar to that for ovarian cancer.
     
  • Vaginal cancer usually starts in the epithelium, which is the lining of the vagina, and is called vaginal squamous cell carcinoma. It develops over the course of many years. Other types of vaginal cancer are adenocarcinoma (cancer that begins in cells that make mucus and other fluids), melanoma, and sarcoma.
     
  • Vulvar cancer can occur on any part of the external female genitals, including the clitoris, the vaginal lips, the opening to the vagina, and the surrounding skin and tissue. Cancer of the vulva is a rare disease, which forms slowly over the course of many years. Most vulvar cancers are squamous cell carcinomas. Melanoma is another common type of vulvar cancer, usually found on the labia minora or clitoris. Other types of vulvar cancer include adenocarcinoma, Paget disease, sarcomas, and basal cell carcinoma. Infection with certain types of HPV causes about half of all vulvar cancers, so vaccines against infection with HPV can reduce the risk of vulvar cancer.
     
  • Gestational trophoblastic disease (GDT) is a group of rare tumors that involve abnormal growth of cells inside the uterus. GTD does not develop from cells of the uterus, as cervical and endometrial cancers do. These tumors start in cells that would normally develop into the placenta during pregnancy. Most GTDs are benign and do not invade deeply into body tissues or spread to other parts of the body, but some are malignant. All forms can be treated, and in most cases completely cured.
     
  • Benign tumors of gynecologic organs
     
  • Abnormal Pap tests
     
  • Inherited predisposition to gynecologic or breast cancer