Usually, the operation involves no serious risk for the healthy donor. The procedure carries the same risk as anyone undergoing general anesthesia. Major complications due to kidney donation are rare, 1 in 1,000 cases.
Long-term problems are minimal but some have suggested there may be a small increase risk of developing high blood pressure or excretion of protein in their urine. None of these, however, have been conclusively shown to affect the long-term health of donors.
Donors are restricted from contact sports that pose a risk of trauma to the remaining kidney. Some occupations, such as the police, fire and military, have been known to deny employment to people with one kidney.